CNC | Development of Machine Tools

In this article, we describe development of machine tools.

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1200–1299 Horizontal bench lathe appears, using foot treadle to rotate object
1770 Screw-cutting lathe invented: first to get satisfactory results (Ramsden, Britain)
1810 Lead screw adapted to lathe, leading to large-quantity machine-tool construction (Maudslay, Britain)
1817 Metal planing machine (Roberts, Britain)
1818 Milling machine invented (Whitney, United States)
1820–1849 Lathes, drilling, boring machines, and planers (most primary machine tools) refined
1830 Gear-cutting machine with involute cutters and geared indexing improved (Whitworth, Britain)

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1830–1859 Milling machines, shapers, and grinding machines (United States)
1831 Surface-grinding machine patented (J. W. Stone, United States)
1834 Grinding machine developed: perhaps first (Wheaton, United States)
1836 Shaping machine invented; Whitworth soon added crank mechanism (Nasmyth, Britain)
1840 ca. Vertical pillar drill with power drive and feed in use (originated in 1750)
1842 Gear-generating machine for cutting cycloidal teeth developed (Saxton, United States)
1850 Commercially successful universal milling machine designed (Robbins and Lawrence, Howe, and Windsor, United States)
1853 Surface grinder patented (Darling, United States)
1854 ca. Commercial vertical turret lathe built for Robbins and Lawrence by Howe and Stone (Stone, Howe, Lawrence, United States)
1857 Whitney gauge lathe built (Whitney, United States)
1860–1869 First cylindrical grinder made; replaces single-point tool of engine lathe (United States)
1860–1879 Universal milling (1861–1865) and universal grinding machines (1876) produced (Brown and Sharpe, United States)
1873 Automatic screw machine invented (1893, produced finished screws from coiled wire—A2) (Spencer, United States)
1887 Spur-gear hobbing machine patented (Grant, United States)
1895 Multispindle automatic lathe introduced for small pieces (United States)
1896–1940 Heavy-duty precision, high production rate grinding machine introduced at Brown and Sharpe (Norton, United States)
1921 First industrial jig borer made for precision machining: based on 1912 single-point tool (Société Genevoise, Switzerland)
1943 Electrodischarge machining (spark erosion) developed for machine tool manufacturing
1944–1947 Centerless thread-grinding machine patented (Scrivener, Britain; United States)
1945 The USM was patented by Balamuth
1947 The first prototype of EBM was designed by Steigerwald
1950 Electrochemical machines introduced into industry
1952 Alfred Herbert Ltd.’s first NC machine tool operating
1958 Laser phenomenon fi rst predicted by Schawlaw and Townes


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